Acetyl Co-A in the presence of 5-HT (5 Hydroxy Tryptamine within the mitochondria produced melatonin! The reason we think this happens is that the melatonin helps the mitochondria deal with reactive oxygen species or oxidation as well as attacks of any inflammatory nature. It is a protection and buffer hormone in the core energy producing part of your cells!
When you have pro inflammatory cytokines present it increases Pyruvate Kinase which inhibits melatonin production and all ATP production (ALL ENERGY PRODUCTION!) . The result is that this cell can now not produce ATP using pyruvate yet there is lots of oxygen floating around so this creates much oxidation and therefore damage! Pyruvate now must convert to “Warburg Phenomena” where it converts pyruvate to Lactate. Only 4 ATP made Aerobic Glycolysis is what this is called! In the presence of oxygen and pro-inflammatory cytokines this process in essence places energy production out side of the mitochondria into the cells cytoplasm. Now consider this happening in a macrophage! The macrophages are working to fight an infection and they are doing this conversion to be able to produce products to allow them to fight with the infection.
It is thought that in the presence of exogenous melatonin is given that this suppresses the Pyruvate Kinase recall this is the one that inhibits melatonin production and ALL ENERGY PRODUCTION!
This exogenous melatonin allows the normal production of melatonin by the mitochondria as well as the efficient production of normal ATP or energy!
There has been over 4,000 publications in peer review journals in the National Library of Medicine confirming melatonin, in super high physiologic dosages is safe and not toxic with dosages as high as 50,000 mg in animal models showing no toxicity. It has been shown in these studies to be the most powerful antioxidant our bodies use!
“We explore the mechanism of melatonin that is associated with the role of stress as a key factor to precipitate depression and as a factor altering neurogenesis, supporting the notion that melatonin possesses anti-stress and neurogenic actions. On the other hand, melatonin shows a pleiotropic character and it is a versatile and ubiquitous antioxidant molecule with low toxicity and high efficacy in reducing oxidative damage. Furthermore, melatonin has anti-inflammatory effects by regulation of multiple cellular pathways and properties to prevent excitotoxicity, among others.” (Ref)
Melatonin is 4x more potent, as a free radical scavenger, than antioxidants such as (vitamin C or E)! Plus for very molecule of melatonin 10 free radicals are scavenged. This is a massive antioxidant load that Melatonin takes on! Melatonin doesn’t stop there it also transforms free radicals to “melatonin metabolites” which also act as free radical scavengers. This process is referred to as “the free radical scavenging cascade”. No other known antioxidant is capable of exerting this remarkably double effect as an antioxidant!
All other major antioxidants in the body, including glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) are stimulated by Melatonin! Sandman provides 200mg of absorbable Melatonin that is time released. Sandman delivers unparalleled and essential brain and body protection and anti-aging effects.
FOR A DEEP DIVE INTO HOW MELATONIN WORKS ON IMMUNE SYSTEM AND HOW IT IS PART OF THE MATH PPLUS PROTOCOL. Ref
Dosages of melatonin. See the high doses they suggest in this article.